Scutosaurus ("Shield Reptile") was a genus of armor-covered pareiasaur that lived around 252-248 million years ago in Russia, in the later Permian period. Its genus name refers to large plates of armor scattered across its body. It was a large anapsid reptile that, unlike most reptiles, held its legs underneath its body to support its great weight.
Scutosaurus was a massively built reptile, up to 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) in length, with bony armor, and a number of spikes decorating its skull. Despite its relatively small size, Scutosaurus was heavy, and its short legs meant that it could not move at speed for long periods of time, which made it vulnerable to attack by large predators. To defend itself Scutosaurus had a thick skeleton covered with powerful muscles, especially in the neck region. Underneath the skin were rows of hard, bony plates (scutes) that acted like a form of chain mail.
As a plant-eater living in a semi-arid climate, Scutosaurus would have wandered widely in order find fresh foliage to eat. It may have stuck closely to the riverbanks and floodplains where plant life would have been more abundant, straying further afield only during times of drought. Its teeth were flattened and could grind away at the leaves and young branches before digesting them at length in its large gut. Given that it needed to eat constantly, Scutosaurus probably lived alone, or in very small herds, so as to avoid denuding large areas of their edible plants.
With its large cheekbones, Scutosaurus may have been able to make a loud bellowing sound. It had excellent hearing and could have heard other animals bellowing from some distance away. These noises could have been used for mating or as warning signals.
The Land Before Time
- Though believed by a few fans to a Scutosaurus, the design of the creature more closely resembles the first illustration of Iguanodon by Gideon Mantell (now referred to as Mantellodon), which depicted the dinosaur as a bulky, lizard-like creature wth a nasal horn (later found to be a thumb spike), than an depiction of an actual Scutosaurus.